Score technology

The fragmentation scheme is to divide the state of the entire network into a series of partitions called Shard, each with its own independent status and trading history.In this system, specific nodes only process transactions in specific partitions, and overall, all partitions handle a much higher throughput rate than a single partition handles all work.

Key points involved in the fragmentation technology:

Status (State): Describes the state of a system at any point in time.In Ethereum, include the current balance, smart contract code and Nonce. at a specific point in timeEach transaction can change status into a whole new state.

Transaction (Transaction): A user-triggered operation that affects the status of the system

Receipt (Receipt): A byproduct of transactions not yet deposited in system status.The transaction is present in the Merkel tree, so it can be easily verified for nodes.The logs of smart contracts in Ethereum were deposited in the Merkel tree as a receipt.

Level1 is the trading group.Each Shard has its own trading group.The trading group is divided into trading group head and trading group

The head is divided into clear left and right sections.

Left part:

The Shard ID to which the Shard ID: trading group belongs

Current status of Pre-state root: fragmentation (before all transactions).

Current status of the Post state root: split (after all transaction applications).

Receipt root: all transaction applications after the receipt root.

Right part:

The right section is all randomly selected verifiers to validate all transactions in that Shard.

ID. containing all transactions in Shard

Features of the Level One

Each transaction specifies the Shard ID. to which it belongs

A transaction belonging to a particular Shard, means that the transaction occurs between two accounts which are accounts on this Shard

The trading group contains transactions which specific Shard, they all belong to and are unique.

Specify the pre and the post state root.

First, on a particular slice, we will have some nodes called ratators.Each slice generates a calibration.The ation is a special data structure that contains important information about this slice.

These calibration (collations) sets are like mini-descriptions of the state and transaction of a particular slice.Each calibration collection has a header containing the following information:

The calibrator- -Shard ID

Current status of slice (before all transactions) -Pre-State

Current status of the slice (after all transaction applications) - -Post-State

The two-thirds of the digital signatures in all calibrators, to ensure that a calibration is legal

We have supernodes that package all the calibration (Collations) from all slices, into a block and join the public chain of Ethereum.The responsibility of the supernode is to handle all calibration transactions and maintain consistency in all slice states by collecting all calibration heads.

In this new blockchain, the following conditions are met, and a block is legal: Transactions in all corrections are legitimate

Before the transaction, the status of the calibration is consistent with the current calibration status

After the transaction, the status of the calibration is consistent with the status specified by the prospecting head

The survey collection obtained two-thirds of the calibrators' signatures

The receipt for each transaction is easily accessible through Merkel-gen in the trading group.Do these two things for each transaction in the shard:

Change the status s tate of the shard where it is located

Generate a receipt

Interestingly, all receipts are put into a distributed shared memory that other shard can see but cannot be modified.Thus, cross-Shard communication can occur via the receipt as follows:

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